Indoor Hydroponic System for Beginners (What You Need and Why)

Indoor Hydroponic System for Beginners (What You Need and Why)
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If you aren’t familiar with hydroponics, it might seem intimidating to set up your own indoor hydroponic grow system. You might think you’d need a lot of special equipment, that it might be expensive to set up, or that the whole process will just be too complicated. There certainly is a lot you could learn about hydroponics and there’s no doubt some people have an incredibly sophisticated setup but you don’t need to be an expert to grow your own plants hydroponically. You can actually put together your own system quite cheaply and without much fuss.

With just a little bit of research you can easily find the best indoor hydroponic system for vegetables that works for you and your specific gardening needs. You can also build your own system with a few basic supplies. Your indoor hydroponic system can be as big or small, as simple or high tech, and as cheap or expensive as you want it to be.

What is Hydroponics?

Hydroponic Vegetables

Hydroponic growing is not reserved only for the advanced gardener or for commercial farms. Absolutely anyone can grow their plants hydroponically, even if they don’t yet fully understand what that means. 

Hydroponics refers to any method of growing plants without soil, using simply mineral nutrient solutions and water. Plants may be grown with their roots directly submerged in the mineral solution or you may also use perlite, gravel, or another inert medium to provide some support.

Why Grow Hydroponically?

Hyrdoponic Lettuce

There are plenty of reasons to grow your plants hydroponically but the most common reasons involve faster growth and maximum yield. In a properly functioning hydroponic system your plants should be getting the perfect amount of nutrients, constant access to water, and a good deal of sunlight. 

When plants are receiving all these basic needs, and they aren’t having to expend any energy extracting them from the soil, they are going to be able to concentrate all of their focus on simply growing to the best of their abilities. Hydroponics is definitely the most efficient way to grow your plants.

Another excellent reason to grow your plants hydroponically is the lack of soil. Anyone with an indoor garden knows how messy it can be when you’re trying to plant, repot, and fertilize your plants on your kitchen counter or your dining room table. Hydroponic gardening might involve a little bit of spilled water or some stray clippings but these types of messes are much easier to clean up than dark, rich soil getting ground into your carpet.

Indoor gardeners will also appreciate all the space they can save by growing their plants spaced much more closely together. Roots won’t need to spread out deep into the soil looking for nutrients and you won’t need to take up extra space with large pots or drainage trays. You may enjoy the look of your plants spread around the house in their lovely pots but if you’re short on space and want to grow a decent sized crop of herbs or veggies, you’ll appreciate how much space you can save with an indoor hydroponic system.

Weeds are completely eliminated in a hydroponic system and pests are almost non existent. With no soil for weeds to grow or for pests to live, you won’t have to worry about watching for these typical garden plagues. Some pests might still find a way to chow down on your plant’s luscious leaves but they’re usually way less of an issue compared to gardening with soil.

Choosing a Hydroponic System

There are six main types of hydroponic systems to choose from. All of these systems use water and nutrient solutions and they do not use soil. The basic elements are the same but each system delivers these needs just a little differently. 

Water Culture

Hydroponic Water Culture

One of the simplest and most inexpensive systems is Water Culture. The plant is placed in a basket above a reservoir filled with nutrient solution and the roots hang down from this basket, completely submerged in the solution. Because the roots are constantly submerged they will require aeration to prevent suffocation. Aeration can be provided through the use of an air pump, air stones, or from a falling water system that creates air bubbles through agitation.

Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

Hyrdoponic Nutrient Film Technique

The Nutrient Film Technique is another popular choice for home gardens because it’s a pretty simple setup. The system involves a shallow stream of nutrient solution which flows through a downward sloped channel. The roots of the plants hang into this stream and absorb nutrients from the steady flow. This system is excellent for small, fast growing plants like lettuce, herbs, and baby greens.

Aeroponic

Hyrdoponic Aeroponics

Aeroponic systems create an environment for the roots that provides as much oxygen as possible. The roots hang in mid air within a growing chamber, using no growing medium so the entire root system can be exposed. Within the growing chamber the roots are sprayed at regular intervals with aeroponic misters that provide the plant with a nutrient solution and also prevent the roots from drying out.

Ebb and Flow

Hyrdoponic Ebb and Flow

The Ebb and Flow, or Flood and Drain, technique uses a water pump on a timer to flood and then drain the root system with water and nutrients. The water reaches a height where it will soak the roots and the excess water drains through an overflow tube. When the pump shuts off at the designated time, the water will drain back down to the reservoir until the pump turns on again. This system provides the roots with alternating periods of air and oxygen then water and nutrients.

Drip

Hyrdoponic Drip

The drip system is a fairly straightforward concept and it works exactly as it sounds. The plants roots are placed in a growing media such as perlite or gravel, and a water and nutrient solution is pumped from a reservoir, through tubes, to drip onto the roots. The growing medium and roots are soaked and then the solution drips back down into the container and flows back to the reservoir. This system is great for large plants with an extensive root system because the growing medium with retain some of the moisture and keep the large root system well hydrated.

Wicking

Hydroponic Wicking

The wicking system is incredibly simple. The plant sits within a wicking medium, such as vermiculite or perlite, in a container directly above the water and nutrient solution reservoir. A wicking rope or strips of felt are used to connect the wicking medium to the solution in the reservoir and as the medium dries out, more water and nutrient solution is pulled up via the wicking rope. No pumps or any moving parts are required with this technique because the wick will simply pull the moisture towards the plant as needed.

What Supplies Will You Need?

Once you’ve decided on the type of system you’d like to create you’ll need to get your supplies together. Some of the techniques mentioned use growing medium, some use pumps, some use wicking ropes. They all vary a little but you’ll need most of the following supplies to create your perfect indoor hydroponic system.

Plants

Hydroponic Seedling

It’s pretty unlikely that you’ll be building a hydroponic system and not putting plants in it. It’s important to consider the potential size of the plants you’ll be growing and make sure there will be room in your system for its roots as well as a strong enough frame to support your plant’s structure. 

If you’re new to hydroponic gardening it’s a good idea to start with a live plant rather than growing from seeds. However, if you do choose to start with a live plants or seedlings, be sure to thoroughly rinse all of the soil from your plant’s roots to avoid contamination of your water and nutrient solution.

Support Structure

Hydroponic Pipe Kit

You’ll definitely require some type of support for your plants and this could be a section of wire mesh or a basket that will allow the roots to hang down. Your plants will need a container for the roots to hang in to as well and this could be a long piece of plastic piping or a big bucket. When using a bucket with a lid, you can cut holes in the lid to place your mesh or basket in, creating an enclosure that will prevent moisture from escaping.

Reservoir

Hydroponic Bucket

In addition to the space where your plant’s roots will be exposed to water and nutrients, you’ll need a reservoir where the water and nutrient solution is stored. If you are using the Water Culture technique, the water reservoir and root basin will be the same space. 

Growing Medium

Hydroponic Seedling Sponge

You may or may not require a growing medium, depending on the hydroponic system you choose. Should you need a growing medium, gravel, perlite, and vermiculite work well. The growing medium would be placed around your plant’s roots, within a basket or on top of a fine wire mesh. When starting your plants from seeds, hydroponic sponges can also be very handy.

Water Pump

Hydroponic Water Pump

Unless you are using the wicking system, you’ll likely require a water pump. This is the only piece of actual machinery you’ll require and simple water pumps can often be purchased fairly cheaply. You can also use a water pump with a timer for the ebb and flow system.

Tubing

Hydroponic Tubing

Tubing is quite cheap and is incredibly easy to find online or in any home improvement store. You’ll just need something than can transport your water and nutrient solution from your reservoir to your root basin and back again. It’s important to ensure your tubing is the correct diameter to connect with any water pump or mister fittings you’ll be using. Also be sure to look for tubing that won’t kink up and interrupt your water flow.

Nutrient Solution

General Hydroponics Nutrient Solution

Your nutrient solution is one of the most important supplies you’ll purchase and it’s crucial to choose a high quality solution that’s right for the specific types of plants you’re growing. Advanced hydroponic gardeners may even choose to make their own custom nutrient solutions but if you’re looking for a good pre-made brand you can try General Hydroponics or Advanced Nutrients.

Water

Hydroponic Water

Needing water for your plants seems like a simple and obvious thing, but the quality of your water can play a big part in how well your plants will grow. You could use tap water but for the best results it’s best to go with fresh rainwater or bottled spring water. Tap water may contain unwanted minerals or may have an undesirable pH level.

pH Control

pH Up and pH Down

pH is an important factor when it comes to caring for your plants. Especially in a hydroponic system, where your plants are nearly constantly submerged, you’ll want to ensure you stay as close to the range that your plant needs as possible. Some plants prefer different pH levels but a typical zone to shoot for is around 6.0 to 7.0. You can purchase a pH testing kit in order to keep an eye on your levels and add pH-Up or pH-Down to your water reservoir as needed to maintain the perfect pH.

Light

Hydroponic Grow Lights

Your plants should have at least 6 hours of sunlight per day so it’s important to position them in a spot that receives ample light. If this can’t be done inside your home, you may want to purchase some grow lights in order to give them that added boost of sunlight they’ll need to thrive.

Hydroponic Kits

Hydroponic Grow Kit

There are plenty of hydroponic kits you can purchase that will come all set up for you, or kits that will provide you with all the supplies you need to get started. It’s not too difficult to build your own system but if you want to make it even easier on yourself, check out some of these indoor hydroponic kits to help you get started.

Get Growing

Creating an indoor hydroponic system for your veggies, herbs, and other plants is a lot easier than people realize. The basic idea is simply to provide your plant’s roots with water, nutrients, and oxygen in the absence of soil. This can be done using any number of the techniques previously mentioned or coming up with your own hybrid style of hydroponic gardening. 

You can easily purchase any of the supplies you need from a gardening center or an online retailer, or you can simply use any buckets, old tubing, or wire mesh that you might find around your house. Think about the different systems and techniques, see what you’ve got lying around, and come up with your own unique indoor hydroponic system.

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Whether you’re brand new to indoor gardening or have been growing your plants indoors for years, our site exists to provide you with all the steps required to make your garden flourish. From grow lights, to soil tips, to indoor gardening kits, there’s always more information you can use to help your garden grow.

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